Solixon A-45-CU-2 - Class AAA (Lumartix SA)

Active area of 450 x 450 mm

The medium size Class AAA Steady State Solar Simulator to characterize and age all technologies of solar cells.


Solixon A-45-CU-2, class AAA 450 x 450 mm

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Compliant with the last norm IEC 60904-9:2020 ed.3

UV light between 280nm and 400nm are important !

The Solixon A-45-CU-2 is a class AAA Steady State Solar simulator intended for continuous operation (24/7). This equipment also can work as a light soaker as it is intended for long duration operation.

This system is a complete current-voltage (I-V) measurement environment for the most demanding user.

All equipment is configured in our factory to reduce the setting costs at the customer site. The computer and software are fully installed and configured to be ready after unpacking and connecting.

The long lifetime Lumixo light engine from Lumartix generates a continuous light spectrum corresponding to a class A spectrum. This system is designed to illuminate any type of solar cell. The Lumixo light engine is illuminating the 450 x 450 mm sample area with an irradiance non-uniformity within class A and temporal stability within class A.

The system consists of a light engine fit into a reflector box (diffuse illuminating unit). A 15 mm to 200 mm wide access gap is granted between the sample area and the reflector bottom to accommodate any sample type. The illustration shows a simulator version with a small gap for thin samples.

The turnkey solution contains the following elements:

- 1 x Steady State Solar Simulator - Solixon A-45-CU-2

- 1 x I-V system Basic or I-V system Professional

- 1 x I-V Tracer software

- 1 x Calibrated Reference Si-solar cell

- 1 x PC computer under Windows 11 Pro English

Measurements capabilities

Maximum power determination (MQT 02) according to IEC 61215-2

Measurement of temperature coefficient test (MQT 04) according to IEC 60891

Performance at STC and NMOT (MQT 06) according to IEC 61215-2

Stabilization (MQT 19) according to IEC 61215-2

Solixon A-45-CU-2 - Illuminating unit specifications

Spectrum: Class A as per IEC 60904-9.

Irradiance: 700 to 1100 W/m2.

Irradiance uniformity: Class A as per IEC 60904-9.

Class AAA specification is guaranteed in the irradiance range from 800 to 1100 W/m2. Lower irradiance settings may reduce the characteristics from class AAA to BBB.

Irradiance temporal stability: Class A (option) as per IEC 60904-9, if the room temperature stays constant.

The characteristics are measured with the illuminating loaded with black material (e.g. «Rosco» black foil), if no optical load is provided by the customer.

Sample holder specifications

The sample holder contains:

- A drawer under the illuminating

- A thermostated table (sample holder) made of anodized aluminum plates having an internal water cooling system.

Tiny holes on the top surface are provided to form a vacuum chuck if connected to an external vacuum pump.

The vacuum pump can be supplied by us, as option.

Cooling capacity

The thermostated sample holder can be maintained at a constant temperature (+/- 2°C) between 20°C and 75°C when loaded with a light absorbing sample and the lamp power set to 1'000 W/m2 irradiance.

Due to the vast variety of solar modules and encapsulation types possible, it is strongly recommended to provide us with actual samples, so finer temperature specifications may be given for the sample holder.

Absolute minimal specifications are the light-soaking test conditions as per IEC-61646: 50°C +/-10°C for a minimal illumination set to 600 W/m2.

Unless otherwise agreed in the acceptance tests, the module temperature is measured with PT100 sensors attached on the back side of the module. No thermal specifications can be given for a margin of 3 cm inwards to the panel rim, neither on the junction box area.

Detailed mechanical drawings of the test modules, or a representative sample, must be provided by the customer before order confirmation to ensure best equipment fitness.

Light engine

The light engine is based on plasma lamp with bulb composition patented to mimic the sun like no other.

This lamp equips the new generation of maintenance low OPEX Steady State Solar Simulator..

The advantages of plasma lamp are:

- Sun spectrum class A according IEC60904-9 without filter (Reduce maintenance cost)

- Life time up to 40’000 hours (warranty 20’000 hours) (Reduce maintenance cost)

- No shift spectrum (Increase quality test)

- No light flux reduction (Increase quality test)


Comprehensive documentation is provided with the system, including operation manual, software manual, and the necessary electrical and mechanical schematics for maintenance.


No particular safety means are necessary for system operation. Direct view to the light source is prevented by the system design. UV protection glass is provided with the system.

I-V System Basic

Our I-V System Basic is built around the well-known Keithley 2401 Source meter. This proven instrument has all it takes to measure I-V curves (both dark and illuminated) on solar cells. The available current range has a minimum of 10 pA and a maximum of 1A, where the voltage ranges from 1μV to 20V. Unlike the more expensive Keithley sourcemeters that interface by USB, this instrument can only be controlled by a GPIB interface. In our basic I-V System we include a GPIB/USB interface for computer connection of the sourcemeter.

When measuring solar cells, it is very important to use a thermostated sample holder, to avoid measurement due to thermal drift of the sample.

Another important parameter for solar cell metrology is the temperature. A high precision, class A Pt100 temperature sensor including computer interface (USB) is provided with this basic IV-System.

Please note that the Tracer I-V Curve Software is required to operate the I-V System Basic.

Key features

- Instrument for measuring I-V curves (both dark and illuminated)

- Current range min. 10pA and max. of 1A

- Voltage range 1μV to 20V

- Including GPIB interface

- Including class A Pt100 temperature sensor with USB computer interface

I-V System professional

Our I-V System Pro is built around the well-known Kepco Bop bi-polar power supply and 3 Agilent DMMs to realize high quality data acquisition on current, voltage and reference cell. These proven instruments have all it takes to measure IV-curves (both dark and illuminated) on solar cells and modules.

The current range is ±4A, where the voltage range is ±100V. Other ranges are available on request. When measuring solar cells, it is very important to use a thermostated sample holder, to avoid measurement due to thermal drift of the sample.

Another important parameter for solar cell metrology is the temperature. A high precision, class A Pt100 temperature sensor including computer interface (USB) is included with this professional I-V System.

Please note that the Tracer I-V Curve Software is required to operate the I-V System professional.

Key features

- Kepco Bop bi-polar power supply (electronic load)

- 3 x Agilent digital multi-meter (DMM)

- Instrument for measuring I-V curves (both dark and illuminated)

- Current ±1A (other ranges are available on request.)

- Voltage range ±100V (other ranges are available on request)

- Including GPIB interface

- Including class A Pt100 temperature sensor with USB computer interface

I-V Measurement Software

A powerful software named Tracer, controlling the electronic load, allows a user-friendly operation, going from simple current-voltage (I-V) plot tracing to more advanced device characterization. It seems logical for this measurement to use a standard power supply, because a power supply is normally used to provide a variable voltage and current. Unfortunately, this would not work for solar cells.

A solar cell generates current, so you will need to have a power supply that sinks this generated current instead of provide it. This can be done with a so called bi-polar power supply (or electronic load). This is a power supply that can sink and source current at both positive and negative voltages. There are many instruments on the market that can be used a such a bi-polar power supply. Some of them are just bi-polar power supplies while others integrate measurement and control capabilities as well.

Tracer will let you define and setup a system based on different instruments to measure your I-V curves. You can add multiplexers to automatically measure multiple cells by using one single measurement system, implement contact checking and measure monitoring solar cells.

Some examples of the supported hardware:

- Keithley 2400 series

- Keithley 2600 series

- HACKL Electronic Loads

- Kepco BOB

- B&K Electronic Loads

- Toellner loads info

- EKO MP-180 Curve Tracer

- National Instruments Data Acquisition

- MODBUS / Ethernet controlled instruments

Of course Tracer natively supports the control of all Keithley 2400 and 2600 series SourceMeters. These instruments have proven their strength over time for the measurement of solar cells. They range from 0.1fA – 20 Amperes.

Tracer is developed with the latest Microsoft.NET Technology, which resulted in a modern ‘Microsoft Office' look and feel. A stable operation on the Microsoft Windows platform is guaranteed (Vista or higher).

Other popular platforms like Linux and MacOS will be supported in the future.

Reference Si solar cell

The standard crystalline silicon reference cell manufactured by ReRa is a high-quality precision sensor for the determination of solar simulator irradiance levels. ReRa uses the Radboud University Nijmegen PV Measurement Facility to calibrate the cells indoor. The calibration is done against an established set of reference cells calibrated at NREL and Fraunhofer ISE. These references are measured each year at the spectroradiometer and broadband intercomparison to ensure traceability.

Key features

- Lower cost reference cell

- Calibrated against traceable reference set

- Irradiance and temperature readout

- Protective Quartz (standard) or Schott KG glass window

- Compatible with the Tracer I-V software

- Open and shunted version available

- Several filter options (KG# window) to match spectral response, KG number to be specified at order.

- Including full calibration report (I-V curve plot, Isc, Voc, Impp, Vmpp, Fill Factor and Efficiency)

- Including cables to connect reference cell in a 4 wires configuration

- Including protective suitcase


- Shunted Silicon Reference Cell

- Open Silicon Reference Cell


All reference cells can be ordered with a KG3 or KG5 window for measurements of specific cell materials.

- KG3 window

- KG5 window

Ask for a quotation

Our engineering team is looking forward to receiving your inquiry, and is ready to assist you in determining the best equipment for your application. Send us a quotation request by clicking the "Ask For a Quotation" button above. Feel free to use the comment text field for telling about your requirements.

Unit type :
Solar Simulator
Light Spectrum :
Class A
Spectrum certification :
By a laboratory accredited by the Swiss Accreditation Service
Light Uniformity :
Class A
Light Stability :
Class A
Light Source :
Lumixo light engine
Lamp lifetime :
up to 40'000 hours (20'000 hours warranty), serviceable
Total illuminated area :
450 x 450 mm
Sample type :
All PV technologies
Sample area :
450 x 450 mm sample area (2 x 2 position of silicon wafer 6'') on an extensible drawer
Sample thickness :
1 to 10 mm thick samples
Sample temperature target :
25°C to 75°C
Illumination non-uniformity :
<2% Class A
Irradiance stability :
<1% LTI, <0.5% STI, Class A
Light engine cooling :
Forced air ventilation
Software :
Lamp control and monitoring: lamp and sample holder temperature, light intensity
Dimensions :
650 x 650 x 2'050 mm (drawer closed); 1'200 x 650 x 2'050 mm (drawer open)
Mass :
~100 kg without refrigerated circulator; ~150 kg with refrigerated circulator
Structure :
Electromagnetic compatibility :
EN 61000-3-3, EN 60555-2 (2.45 GHz ISM Group 1, Class B Device)
RoHS conformity :
conforms with RoHS
CE conformity :
yes, the components and the whole system is in conformity with the CE regulations, the system is intended for industrial and laboratory use
Warranty :
24 months
Options :
Chiller for sample holder cooling. Vacuum pump for samples positioning
I-V Software :
I-V measurement software with analysis functions and data exportation integrated
Probes :
Solar cell probes low and high resolution available in option
I-V system basic :
Based on Keithley source meter series (piloted by I-V software across GPIB interface)
I-V system profesionnal :
Based on 400W electronic load and 3 digital multimeters. Record simultaneously voltage, current, irradiance, temperature module or cell and temperature of reference cell
Multiplexer system :
Multiplexer and temperature measurement system (64 channels 1A, can be extended to 128 channels)